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1Cadmium 2What is Cadmium -Cadmium is a naturally occurring element in the earths crust Pure cadmium is a soft silver-white metal -Cadmium is most off encountered in combination with other elements such as oxygen chlorine and sulfur 3How Does Cadmium affect us -Lung damage -Kidney disease -High blood pressure -Lung cancer -Lead to fragile bones 4 Ways to be exposed to cadmium -Small amounts of cadmium occur naturally in air water soil and food -Cadmium is passed along the food chain bottom up -Phosphate fertilizers and sewage sludge increase cadmium levels in soil -Burning of fossil fuels releases cadmium coal and oil -Smoking increases cadmium levels 5Solutions to Cadmium Problems -EPA limits discharge amounts by companies into environment -Maximum contaminant levels set for drinking water -OSHA has established maximum and average exposure time limits to cadmium Dust and fumes -FDA limits amount used in ceramic plates cups 1CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons 2CFCs -Chlorofluorocarbons cfcs are a family of compounds containing chlorine Fluorine and carbon -Invented in 1920s as safe alternative to sulfur dioxide and ammonia refrigerants -They are unreactive and have low flammability plus low toxicity -Classified as halocarbons -Green house gas 25 -Stable in atmosphere very stable 10 to more than 100 years -CfC-11 CFC-12 3Uses of CFCs -As aerosol propellants -As solvents in cleaning electronic components and metals -As refrigerants -As blowing agents in foam plastic manufacturing -Air conditioners 4How Ozone Depletion occurs -CFCs are safe to use in the lower atmosphere but the problem occurs when they Drift to the upper atmosphere or stratosphere -Discovered in 1973 that CFCs damage ozone - UV destroys CFCs and Chlorine is released which destroys ozone -100000 molecules of ozone can be destroyed per chlorine atom 5Damage Done by CFCS -Damage first noted in 1974 -Conclusive evidence of stratospheric ozone loss discovered in 1984 -Hole over the Antarctica announced March 1985 -Contributes to global
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