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A central goal of developmental biology is to understand the mechanisms whereby undifferentiated pluripotent cells differentiate into mature organized cells and tissuesCHD7 encodes a protein mutated in human CHARGE syndrome an autosomal dominant disorder that affects hearing vision and cardiac craniofacial and nervous system development 4 In the article CHD7 cooperates with PBAF to control multipotent neural crest formation Bajpai et al 2010 aim is to investigate whether CHD7 cooperates with PBAF to control multipotent neural crest formation It was postulated that CHARGE syndrome results from abnormal development of the neural crest 4Their first experiments investigate the role of CHD7 in human neural crest NC formation They used human embryonic stem cells hESCs to establish an in vitro model of NC migration and differentiation Interestingly due to the migratory cells having characteristics consistent with an early NC cell they termed these cells as human neural crest-like cells hNCLCs 1 To study CHD7 function hESCs were infected with a lentivirus encoding doxycycline-inducible CHD7 short hairpin RNA shRNA resulting in a doxycycline-dependent downregulation of CHD7 mRNA and protein levels1 As shown in Fig 1c-d cells migrating from the CHD7 shRNA emitted decreased levels of red fluorescence1 All in all CHD7 is crucial for the formation of migratory hNCLCs Next Bajpai et al asked whether CHD7 is essential for NC migration in vivo they explored CHD7 function inXenopus laevis embryo model by establishing a migration assay 1 Tailbud-stage stage 25 embryos were imaged with stereomicroscopes and were assayed for NC cell migration to pharyngeal arch Fig 2b CHD7 is highly conserved between humans and Xenopus laevis therefore it is a great model to be used in research Furthermore a morpholino oligonucleotideMO was shown to deplete CHD7 protein levels in the embryo upon injection 1 As was expected injection of Chd7 MO abolished pharyngeal arch PA cell migration CHD7 mRNA alone had no effect and simultaneous injection of Chd7 MO and CHD7 mRNA resulted
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