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Throughout the animal kingdom chemical signalling is widely used It isused for mate signalling as alarm signalling and in predator preyrelationships In some cases the predator can used pheromones releasedby the prey to find them One example of that is the German wasp whichis attracted to the mating pheromones of the male Mediterranean fruitfly In other cases prey can use pheromones or chemicals released bythe predator to avoid it These chemicals are called kairomones orsensory chemicals Elert and Pohnert 2000 Pijanowska 1997 Daphnia carinata are a New Zealand native species living in ponds andlakes They are small planktonic crustaceans of between 02 and 05 mmin length Daphnia feed through the filter feeding of small algaerotifers and sometimes smaller crustaceansPredators of D carinata are generally small fish like native galaxidssuch as Inanga Galaxias maculatus and the common bully Gobiomorphuscotidianus Larger aquatic insects such as Anisops wakefieldi arealso predators of D carinataAs introduced above many organisms avoid predators using chemicalsignals and D carinata have been shown to exhibit this behaviour tooIn the experiment by Hendry and Burns 2001 they showed that Dcarinata produced a negative vertical migration when exposed to watercontaining chemicals exuded by the common bully Inanga and also thechemical trimethylamine TMA 1125-500 M This has also been shown inother Daphnia species where they also descended in the water column inthe presence of backswimmers Notonecta Dodson 1988 D carinatas behavioural response toward potential predators has beenexamined by Hendry and Burns 2001 but only with a limited set ofspecies two fish species and one insect species A number of otherstudies have also looked into this as well including Elert and Pohnert2000 who used differing concentrations of kairomones extracted fromthe water of a predator fish It appears that there is a response tochemicals released by predators but little has been carried out on otherpredator species that could also cause a response in D carinata Alsotesting the response against different
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