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Cryptosporidiosis is a one of the mostly widespread and nationallyrecognized gastrointestinal illness caused by chlorine-tolerant protozoaof the genus Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium are intestinal parasitesthat can be found in the sources of piped drinking water systems thatare susceptible to flooding or fecal contamination When the digestivesystems of immunocompromised individuals are infected withCryptosporidium parasites they may suffer from severe diarrhea which ispotentially a life-threatening illness According to the book edited by Ronald Fayer titled Cryptosporidiumand Cryptosporidiosis Ernest Edward Tyzzer was the first person torecognize clearly describe and publish an account of a parasite hefrequently found in the gastric glands of a tame variety of common miceIn 1907 he described its asexual and sexual stages and in 1910 hedescribed the parasite in greater detail again in the gastric glands ofthe common mouse and proposed the name Cryptosporidium as a new genusand C muris as the type species Only little attention was given tothese parasites for 48 years after Tyzzers first publication becauseCryptosporidium was not yet recognized to be of economic medical orveterinary importance there were no subsequent studies and therefore nonew information on the genus However in 1976 two groups separatelyreported the first two cases of cryptosporidium in humans A 3 year oldchild and a 39 year old immunosuppressed patient that had 3 things incommon each lived on a farm with cattle present had a dog andsuffered from severe watery diarrhea A third human case of enteritiswas reported in a 9yr old boy with congenital hypogammaglobulinemia whohad no unusual exposure to animals or house pets Lasser et al1979soon after many cases were reported in animals increasing the interestand lead to more study of the genus worldwide This surge of worldwideinterest and study lead to a report in 1982 from the Centers for DiseaseControl CDC describing 21 males from 6 large cities in the UnitedStates who had severe protracted diarrhea In 1993 interest againincreased dramatically following a massive waterborne outbreak inMilwaukee Wisconsin involving an estimated 400000
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