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Ethnography Ethnography is the firsthand personal study of local settings Bronislow Malinowski a Polish anthropologist is credited as being the father of ethnography Malinowski believed it was an ethnographers job to research and study small groups of foragers cultivators and generally any type of culturally diverse communities that could be threatened by western civilization Early ethnographers including Malinowski would live in small-scale relatively isolated societies with very limited technologies and economics This would be known as field techniques Field techniques include the following Participant observation which is a direct firsthand observation of daily behavior Next is interviews structured or unstructured Then is the genealogical method a family tree Early ethnographers used notation and symbols to identify with kinship decent and marriage This is a significant building block in the social organization of non-industrial societies Ethnographers and anthropologists use such data to understand current social relations and to reconstruct history In many types of non-industrialized societies relationship or kin-links are basic to social life Next there are people known as key cultural consultants There are certain people in the community that for some reason whether it be by luck or experience know important information about specific aspects of the community or life Next the ethnographer will talk to villagers or people in the community to gather information Just like at home ethnographers will find people they like more than others These people they like and find interesting they will collect a life history on them This would be beneficial for showing personal culture and diversity in how different people deal with the same everyday problems Next would be discovering local beliefs and perceptions which may be compared with the ethnographers own observations When doing this usually two types of research strategies are used the emic and the etic An emic approach strives to find how the natives or locals think and perceive things The etic is more scientific-oriented and it changes focus from the
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