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1 Evaluate more than three of the perspectives on best practiceSfard 1998 identifies two broad metaphors which underpin thinkingabout learning The first metaphor sees learning as acquisition Thesecond metaphor is about learning as participation Ramsden in reviewing conceptualization of leaning contrasts a constructivist viewof learning which defines learning as interpreting and understandingreality in a different way with the more traditional view of learning asbeing about acquiring facts skills and methods that can be retain andused as necessary Ramsden 2003 27 Dewey 1938 argued thattraditional views of learning posit that learning occurs through thetransfer of information from knowledgeable sources or from one who ismore informed to the passive recipient In this traditionopportunities for learning are determined to a large extent by theeducators notion of how children learn and by the activities andexperiences offered to the learner In contrast to the traditional viewof learning contemporary views perspectives of teaching and learningrecognize the importance of allowing students to take control of thisown learning by engaging in active learning meta-cognition and transferof knowledge Johnson Johnson and Smith 199 In a study they carried out in theearly nineties found that when students were passive recipients duringlecturers the acquisition of facts took precedent over the developmentof higher cognitive processes such as analyzing synthesizing andevaluatingFindings like this highlightl a very practical argument for moving fromatransmissive to a broadly constructivist pedagogy International best practices of teaching and learning in highereducation point out that quality teaching and learning is facilitatedthrough more constructive and interactive learning environments Whatdo they mean by quality current orientation to teaching favor moreactive learning For example a number of key best practices have beenidentified as contributing to student learning These include-facilitating enabling a supportive learning environment environmentof cooperation and collegiality and encouraging and rewarding activelearning frequent communication between academic staff and students staff communicating high expectations providing prompt feedback tostudents and emphasizing time on task and respecting the diversetalents and
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