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Affirmative actions are policies programs and steps taken to advantage the minorities of a society who are believed not to have the same opportunities as do majorities in social matters According to the definition in the American Civil Liberties Union official website Affirmative action is one of the most effective tools for redressing the injustices caused by our nations historic discrimination against people of color and women and for leveling what has long been an uneven playing field The conception preferential policies is said to have been started in 1960s when President Lyndon Johnson proposed and pursued programs to undo the results of previous discriminations asserting that the mere acceptance of equality would not remedy the unjustness towards the minorities And those steps were to ensure the equality of results for groups who suffered from unfairness helping them to attain what they were refused Eastland 30-40 Since then the guidelines of such policies have been redefined and interpreted making the policies even broader And surprisingly all these steps towards preferential programs happened after the Civil Rights Movement during which many social activists were fighting against discrimination along with Dr Martin Luther King demanding laws that did not have preference upon race color or any similar characteristics Eastland 21 These demands were fulfilled when the Civil Rights Act was passed into law prohibiting discrimination in 1964 Eastland 22 Thus because there were clear conflicts between the newly ratified laws and the proposed preferential policies many cases were taken to the courts One of the influential cases was the 1978s Regents of the University of California v Bakk in which the Supreme Court ruled that race could be considered as a factor for admissions in American higher education schools Eastland 65 As a result many applicants have not been admitted into universities and other academic institutions for their racial and social status for the fact that they
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