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Echinococcus is a species of tapeworm that can be found worldwide There are three variations of the worm that are found in most cases They are called Echinococcus granulosus Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus vogeli The difference between them are that E granulosus is found world wide while E multilocularis is found in the northern hemisphere E vogeli is found in central and south America There is also a fourth variety called Echinococcus oligarthrus whose status as a human parasite is often disputed This species of worms can have different types of infections One causes cystic echinococcosis and the other alveolar echinococcosis Each varies on the location they target in the body and the severity of the infection The treatment of the parasite is usually serologically and through surgical removal Echinococcosis is a zoonosis that can sometimes infect humans by 4 different types of species causing a variety of different signs and symptoms diagnosed and treated differently depending on the stage of infection and can be prevented a variety of ways Cystic echinococcosis is caused by E granulosus and can be seen worldwide The common name is Hydatid Tapeworm Humans are infected by accidental ingestion of eggs which are found in water food or soil contaminated by the feces of the infected dog This infection is the most widespread zoonotic disease It is found in countries like Africa Europe Asia the Middle East Central and South America and in North America It does not discriminate which explains why it is in a problem in both developing and developed countries The definitive host of this species of tapeworm is the dog while sheep cattle pigs and goats can be thought of as intermediate host The life cycle of E granulosus closely mimics E multilocularis except for a few differences The lifecycle can be seen in figure 1 below The adult who is about 3 to 6 mm lives in the dog which was discussed
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