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IntroductionIn this paper I will focus on reviewing the study in Nassaji H Tian J 2010 and demonstrating the effects of collaborative output tasks introduced in this study Initially I will outline the effects of collaborative output tasks by using Swains output hypothesis model and Vygotskys ZPD Zone of Proximal Development theory Then I will review the empirical studies relevant to collaborative output tasks presented in Nassaji and Tians 2010 study and critically review the Nassaji and Tians present study Finally I will point out limitations of collaborative tasks and implications for teaching in classrooms Collaborative Output Tasks in SLA In the recent second language acquisition SLA studies effective communicative tasks facilitating L2 learners grammatical accuracy and fluency in meaningful contexts have been continuously developed in L2 classrooms Swinging the extreme instructional pendulum focus on formS and focus on meaning an alternative approach focus on formform-focused instruction has been positively considered as a new dynamic approach in L2 classrooms Collaborative output practiceis one of the pedagogical tasks which require learners to work together and produce the target language collaboratively in negotiating for meaning In carrying out the practice peer or teachers feedback will be effectively provided for learners to attend to specific form Swains Output Hypothesis Metalinguistic functionThe collaborative output practice is basically proposed by Swains output hypothesis in which the following three functions noticing function hypothesis testing function and metalinguistic function are acknowledged Particularly the third function metalinguistic function underpins the effect of collaborative learning In producing the language learners talk about the language metatalk and deepen their awareness of forms In other words producing the L2 as opposed to simply comprehending the language may prompt learners to move from semantic processing to syntactic processing Kowal Swain 1997 Swain 1985 This reflection on forms enables learners to control and internalize their linguistic knowledge particularly through solving linguistic problems see problem solving in Figure 1 In this way output unlike input alone enables learners
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