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In his writings on Early Christian Ethics Thomas Aquinas proposed the existence of four distinct types of laws These laws are eternal natural human and divine Aquinas defines eternal law as that which orders everything in the universe It is a cosmos which issues from the will and wisdom of God He defines natural law as a subset of eternal law He states that the natural law is the location for the fundamental principles of morality and we come to the natural law through conscience and reason Essentially Aquinas incorporates Aristotles ideas of practical wisdom and reason incorporates them into his natural law and states that the natural law comes from God This gives ethics a divine grounding Aquinas explains human law as customary laws which vary from place to place based on customs or values An example of this is the punishment for stealing which is different in some regions than others According to Aquinas divine law is that which we see not through reason but through revelation An example of divine law would be the existence of heaven and hell Humans could not possibly reason the existence of heaven and hell so they can only learn of it through Gods revelations in the Bible Vernon Bourke analyzes Aquinas moral psychology because he believes that it is an important basis for the Aquinas entire philosophy and that it was an essential component of Aquinas bringing Aristotelian ideas to the Christian world view Bourke states that Aquinas moral psychology can be broken down to three distinct human functions The first function is intelligence Bourke defines Aquinas view of intellect as the ability to comprehend universal meanings of the experience and the capacity to reason conclusions from this experience This concept is very similar to Aristotles concept of practical knowledge which comes from the use of reason Volition is the second human function which Bourke analyzes He states that the volition is complementary in to
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