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James Banks believes that there should be more multicultural education taught in schools Education about ethnic diversity treats cultural pluralism within a nation-state by studying different traits from different groups which determine one group from another He believes that a major goal of education in a free society is acceptance of cultural pluralism as a national strength and not an obstacle Individuals of various minority groups may maintain their ethnic identities while sharing a common culture with Americans from many different ethnic backgrounds httpericaenetedoED273539htmA suggestion made on how to incorporate more multicultural issues is that social studies education should build consensus on core civic values important to all Americans These include the rule of law representative and limited government and civil liberties including toleration of the respect of the rights of individuals and ethnic minority groups Banks believes that educators who recognize and respect their students ethnic identities should also prepare them to assume common obligations and responsibilities of citizenship which involve shared civic values embodied in basic documents of the American heritage Although students and teachers may participate variously within different microcultures they also come together within the American mainstream culture especially the civic culture httpericaenetedoED273539htmJames Banks has four basic levels to what he thinks will reform the curriculum Level 1 is called the contribution approach This is when the Heroes heroines holidays foods and discrete cultural elements are celebrated occasionally See the chart This is the level I think most schools are at now Level 2 is called the additive approach This is where things are added to the curriculum without the structure changing Level 3 is called the transformation approach This approach says the structure of the curriculum is changed to enable students to view concepts issues events and themes from the perspectives of the diverse ethnic and cultural groups See the chart Finally the 4th level is called the action approach This is when the students are encouraged to take action
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