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No associations were found between baseline dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes and markers of vascular health including the gold standard marker for arterial stiffness cfPWV peripheral blood pressure PP and MAP in addition to augmentation index corrected for heart rate another marker of arterial stiffness Dietary intakes were derived from FFQs that assessed usual intakes for the period of 3 months prior to the baseline visit An association at baseline would be a limitation to the pilot study as it could potentially obscure the final results of the pilot study and conceal findings on possible effects of calcium supplements on cardiovascular health These results are however limited by the small sample size n12 and a greater number of participants may reveal different associations In fact studies have revealed inverse relationships between dietary calcium intakes and markers of vascular health such as BP In deed a study by Appel et al demonstrated a reduction in blood pressure with the addition of low-fat dairy products by 21 mmHg Appel et al 1997 Furthermore many observational studies have linked dietary calcium intakes to a healthier plasma lipid profile decreases in cardiovascular disease decreases in insulin resistance and type II diabetes mellitus Griffith et al 1999 Jacqmain et al 2003 Pittas et al 2006 Zemel et al 2000 Therefore a larger sample size is required to determine readiness of correlationsIn addition no significant correlations were found between baseline anthropometric measures of WC body fat age years post-menopause and ionized calcium levels with markers of vascular health which could also conceal final results on the potential associations between supplement intakes of calcium and cardiovascular events In contrast body composition including percentage body fat BMI and WC are known to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease other chronic diseases and increased blood pressure in both men and women of all ages Balkau et al 2007 Gillum 1987 Furthermore many studies have demonstrated associations between age and markers of
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