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Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift is regarded as one of the greatest satires in modern history The purpose of the book although some of his contemporaries didnt realize it is to ridicule his government his rulers and human nature as a whole His generalization of the human condition doesnt manifest itself completely until Part IV of the book where the main character Lemuel Gulliver finds himself on an island inhabited by two main species the Houyhnhnms horse-like animals and the Yahoos human-like animals The difference between this island and reality as we know it is the fact that the Houyhnhnms are intelligent noble creatures governed wholly by reason and the Yahoos are naked dirty humanoids that seem at best barbaric creatures The purpose of Part IV is to show the extremities of human nature and to display both the good and bad qualities through two different examples Swift makes the good quality of human nature seem more foreign to the reader by attributing that good quality reason to a horse It also puts the period of Enlightenment in perspective for the reader The main purpose of Book IV of Gullivers Travels is to exemplify the two extremes of human nature as well as show what position on that spectrum we humans should strive to achieve The positive extreme Gulliver encounters on his arrival to the island is the Houyhnhnm a horse ruled by reason Gulliver almost immediately admires these creatures as well as everything about them especially their speech their language approaches nearest to the High Dutch or German of any I know in Europe but is much more graceful and significant Swift 189 He tries throughout his visit to become a Houyhnhnm by learning their language among other things despite the fact that he looks nothing like them Many things about their race impress him especially the fact that there is no word for lie in their vocabulary Instead it is described as the
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