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Word Count: 441
After Marco Polo traveled to China in the early 1200s the Chinese called westerners hairy white barbarians Portuguese barbarians then named what is now Taiwan Formosa in the 1590s In 1644 the Manchu people invaded China and established the Qing dynasty They were the last dynasty In 1793 King George III of Britain send lord Macartney to negotiate a more open trading system with China In 1796 there was a rebellion because of political dishonesty It lasted until 1804 CiXi started to rule in 1839 because of the death of Hsien Fong In that same year the Qing government made laws against opium trade which happened to be a profitable product for British merchants Chinese authorities in Canton destroyed billions of dollars of British opium This touched off the Opium War In 1842 the Treaty of Nanjing ended the War It is believed to be the first of many unequal treaties In 1851 a group called the Taipings rebelled against the Qing dynasty and Confucianism After 14 years Chinese officials organized new armies which defeated the Taipings In 1860 the Sino-Russo treaty gave Britain South Kowloon and Ngong Chauas permanently leased land from the Qing Court In 1894 a war broke out between China and Japan over predominance in East Asia Japan seized Taiwan and S Manchuria The war ended in 1895 it was named the Sino-Japanese War In 1898 the Yihequan started the Boxer Rebellion against the spread of Japanese and Western influence The Open Door policy was instituted in 1899 Allowing merchants to trade freely and preventing China from splitting into spheres of influence The Boxer Rebellion ended on September 7 1901 with the Boxer Protocol PuYi took over the Qing dynasty in 1908 His rule was short lived because in 1911 the Republican Revolution was sparked by an army revolt On October 10 1912 the Qing dynasty collapsed Sun Yatsen became president of Republic of China only to resign six weeks later
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