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Word Count: 687
The United States Supreme Court acknowledged the separate but equal statement of the Equal Protection Clause from Plessey vs Ferguson in 1896 however the Supreme Court disregarded equality among public schools as segregation schools were established Affirmative action is a constitutional right giving each citizen equal rights and opportunities However the issue of equal opportunity of inclusion in higher education has often been a major problem for the United States in relation to the federal policy making system and the irony of problems with institutional racism in a so-called democracy Thus the de facto segregation of affirmative action and the busing plans were implemented to achieve integration and diversity within the educational systems The implementation process of desegregation with all deliberate speed moved at a very slow pace because many states became opponents of the affirmative action policy In 1961 President John F Kennedy proposed the Affirmative action policy establishing rules and guidelines for equal employment and education opportunities In Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka in 1954 the Supreme Court defined a new public policy for equality thus establishing segregations of separate schools by race to be considered discriminatory and unequal Therefore equal education opportunities for African Americans and other minorities shifted to a good start Children were allowed to attend schools without separation due to raceethnicity This case was significant in the movement towards equality for minorities Nevertheless after Brown vs Board court case many states opposed the affirmative action policy by banning it within the state The states of Michigan California Washington Nebraska and Connecticut were opponents of the policy and tried hard to evade the decision rather than comply with that intent 169 In the 1964 case Griffin vs Prince Edward county board of education Virginia schools shut down and gave vouchers to white families to use at private schools As a result the Supreme Court held that Virginia had to comply with the constitutional law and admit
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