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Word Count: 920
Several schools of polyphony developed in the time period after the twelfth century the St Martial school of organum in which the music of which was often identified by a rapidly moving part over a single sustained line Also the Notre Dame school of polyphony which included the composers Lonin and Protin and which produced some of the first music for more than two voices in the thirteenth century Alongside these schools of sacred music a vibrant tradition of secular song developed as seen in the music of the troubadours and trouvres Much of the later secular music of the early Renaissance evolved from the forms ideas and the musical aesthetic of the troubadours courtly poets and itinerant musiciansWestern polyphony finds its roots in two early compositional styles organum and conductus These two genres began through a process of expanding on existing compositions This process of adding to existing chants was labeled as troping As this troping continued composers embellished chant melodies by adding text mellismas and eventually by adding additional voices and partsThe earliest type of polyphony started appearing as organum in which the chant melody was sung along with an accompanying voice usually below the original in an interval of either a fourth or fifth In the eleventh century the organum started becoming more complicated and flexibleOrganum briefly appeared in the tenth century but was dismissed by the Catholic Church and did not become popular until the eleventh century Organum was the first notable use of harmony in the western world and was the first genre to more than one voice part in this case two Composers took melodies from Gregorian chant and extended them harmonically with parallel fifths and especially parallel fourths The intervals of the perfect fourth fifth and octave were considered the only concords during this period and use of other intervals was considered cacophonous Later organum used stepwise motion
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