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Theories of meaning have attempted to address and understand the meaning of different aspects of language by exploring reference use context scientific explanation and more H P Grice continued such an investigation with his theory of meaning in relation to psychological states and communication In his essay Meaning Grice makes a distinction between two types of meaning rejects a casual theory to give an account of meaning and most importantly surveys the importance of speaker intention when uttering an expression and further suggests that this speaker-meaning determines sentence meaning His theory describes how the meaning of linguistic expressions is based on communicative intention through a series of three requirements involving reflexive connections between the speaker and their audience Although his essay offers a strong theory of meaning objections suggest that its requirements are both too strong and also too weak for example objective meanings of sentences are disregarded in certain situations like the German officer objection and Grices criteria fail when there is an absence of audience however with some revision there are possible solutions to these objectionsGrice begins his essay by making a distinction between natural and non-natural senses of meaning He provides indicators of how the two differ most importantly through entailment In natural meaning such as his example sentence Those spots mean measles one cannot argue that those spots if they really are measles do not actually mean that the person has measles Grice 285 Therefore as he puts it x meant that p and x means that p entail p 285 In contrast in non-natural meaning meaningNN Grice says x means that p and x meant that p do not entail p 285 In other words the human agent as Grice labels it means something by x 286 but the entailment could vary and does not have a fixed natural meaning The rest of Grices paper deals with understanding where non-natural meaning comes fromIn the process of trying to account
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