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The Hawthorne studies are said to have been an important milestone in management thinking Discuss this idea with reference to the thoughts on management both before and after the Hawthorne studies took place INTRODUCTION Management Management is the process of coordinating and integrating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other peopleRobbins et al 82000 Modern managers use many of the practices principles and techniques developed from earlier concepts and experiences The Industrial Revolution brought about the emergence of large-scale business and its needed for professional managers Early military and church organisations provided the leadership models states Oldcorn Oldcorn 31996 Organisational Behaviour It is evident that large numbers of people have been doing work for a long time Pyramids and many other huge monuments and structures were built armies and governments were organised and civilisations spread over vast territories This took organisation and management There are some writings from history indicating that systematic approaches to management and organisation did evolve and were transmitted to others However the primary influences in organisations and management today stem from more recent events BEFORE THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES Scientific Management The Industrial Revolution that started with the development of steam power and the creation of large factories in the late Eighteenth Century lead to great changes in the production of textiles and other products The factories that evolved created great challenges to organisation and management that had not been confronted before Managing these new factories and later new entities such as railroads with the requirement of managing large flows of material people and information over large distances created the need for some methods for dealing with the new management issues The most important of those who began to create a science of management was Frederic Winslow Taylor Taylor was one of the first to attempt to systematically analyse human behaviour at work His model was
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