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Western Civilization The European Enlightenment Researchers show the European Enlightenment came about as the result of the new natural science ideas of Isaac Newton the political and social theories of great thinkers like Hobbes and the psychology of John Locke Much of Newtons thought comes from the thirteenth century science of men like Galileo Copernicus and Kepler Hobbess political and social theories can be traced back to the Northern Renaissance and the psychology of Locke comes from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries There were many contradictory turns in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries first with the overthrow of the monarchy in the seventeenth century and its replacement by a republic followed later in the century by a weakened monarchy By the end of the seventeenth century England would see the a loss of the monarchs powers in Englands Glorious Revolution The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw the development of absolute monarchies and a more tightly-centralized national government Many historians regard the growth of the absolute monarchy as the origin of the modern state Because this growth in absolute and centralized power of the government and the monarchy this age is called the Age of Absolutism 1660-1789 beginning with Louis XIV and ending with the French Revolution Crises and tragedies primarily motivated absolutism of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Absolute monarchies were originally proposed as a solution to the bloody civil and religious wars erupting as a result of the Reformation These absolutists argued several important roles of the national government should solely be in the hands of the monarch the military judicial system and tax collection Powers such as these normally belonged to the aristocracy and local government now required the formation of a national civil bureaucracy that only answered to the king This bureaucracy had to stand against powerful forces opposing the king such as the church and nobility as well as
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