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Slow Improvement but substantial gains Judicial Actions 1954- Brown v Board of Ed- ends segregation 1962- Baker v Carr- one man one vote redistricts congressional districts to be more representative of minorities 1964- Heart of Atlanta Motel v US- uses interstate commerce clause to ban segregated motels hotels and restaurants 1966- SC v Katzenbach- enforces 15th amendments policy of ending voting discrimination 1968- Jones v Mayer- racial discrimination in sale or rental of housing is illegal 1971- Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg County- bussing can be used as a means of combating state enforced segregation 1979- United Steel Workers v Weber- upholds affirmative action for the purpose of remedying past injustices 1983- Dayton Board of Ed v Brinkman- upholds bussing as remedy for de facto segregation Legislative Actions- 1964- Civil Rights Act- Title II- forbids discrimination in public accommodations Title III IV- forbids discrimination by public schools Title VII- forbids discrimination by employers 1964- 24th Amendment- ends poll tax 1965- Voting Rights Act-prohibited state govt from using procedures that discriminated against a certain race -EEOC formed to enforce these laws -Affirmative Action- companies with federal contracts and federally funded universities must abide by a rule which help or increase the chances of blacks and minorities receiving favorable positions 1982- Voting Rights Amendment- creates minority-majority districts so the likelihood of electing minorities increases 1988- Congress revises the Civil Rights Act to invalidate the anti-affirmative action decision in Grove City College v Bell Successfully ends for the most part de juro segregation and discrimination however de facto segregation still largely exists today Social and political factors hindering substantial integration White backlash -Affirmative action hated by most whites Bakke v Cal 78 limits affirmative actions power -Racial gerrymandering seen as ridiculous and then even unconstitutional Shaw v Reno 93 Miller v Johnson 95 -These public sentiments backed up by the Conservative swing of the Reagan appointed Rhenquist court -de facto segregation Not caused by any government
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