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Afrikaans and English are the official languages Afrikaans derived from Dutch is the mother tongue of the Afrikaners and the principal language of the Coloreds More Afrikaners are bilingual than English-speakers Most urban blacks speak English and Afrikaans in addition to their native language The Bantu languages are not mutually intelligible Many blacks speak Fanakalo a lingua franca that developed among black workers in the minesThe politically influential Dutch Reformed church which professes a fundamentalist-type Calvinist Protestantism has almost 4 million members of whom 2 million are Afrikaners and 12 million are Coloreds The Roman Catholic Church claims 24 million adherents The Anglicans whose spiritual leader is Bishop Desmond TUTU a black awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his leadership in the struggle against apartheid claims 2 million members as do the Methodists Most Africans belong to black independent churches or follow traditional religious practices Three-fourths of the Asians are Hindu The Jewish community numbers less than 140000Wide disparities exist between races in health indicators and facilities Life expectancy at birth is 59 years for blacks and Coloreds 65 years for Asians and 72 years for whites Gastroenteritis malnutrition and tuberculosis are major causes of death among blacks and the black infant mortality rate is more than six times the rate for whites Medical facilities for whites are superior to those for other racesEducation has been under the control of a single government agency since 1985 except in the homelands each of which has its own education department Schooling is compulsory for all whites and most Coloreds between the ages of 7 and 1 and for Asians between 7 and 14 Compulsory education for blacks between the ages of 7 and 16 began to be phased in in 1981 but many black children do not attend school Expenditures for black education have increased however and modest moves to integrate some public schools began in 1991 Ten universities cater to whites--five teaching in Afrikaans
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