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Leopard Frog - Rana Pipiens Distribution Found throughout Ontario but more abundant in southern and central Americas Range Adults maintain small home ranges up to 500 m2 in fields or open forest during the summer Where terrestrial habitats are quite dry home ranges include some shoreline A minimum of 4 ha of terrestrial habitat is recommended for the vicinity of breeding sites however individual adults may move several kilometres away Most recently metamorphosed froglets stay within 20 m of shoreline although some froglets begin dispersal before metamorphosis is entirely complete Diet Larvae eat algae phytoplankton periphyton and detritus Adults eat mainly invertebrates but will also take tadpoles or very small froglets Reproduction Successful breeding sites are permanent ponds marshes or pools or backwaters of streams Eggs and tadpoles require warm prefer 18o - 28o C shallow sunny areas Breeding occurs from mid-March to mid-May in southern Ontario and a few weeks later further north Metamorphosis occurs in 2-3 months Tadpoles require minimum oxygen concentrations of 3 ppm Habitat Relative to bullfrogs and green frogs leopard frogs use open fields more and prefer denser terrestrial vegetation In aquatic habitats submerged vegetation detritus and soft mud are used for cover LookoutSunning Froglets require muddy shorelines lily pads rocks logs or beaver dams with clear access to deeper water Adults prefer unmowed fields 15 - 30 cm high no more than 1 m high vegetation or open forest in the vicinity of shallow open marshes ConnectivityCorridors Corridors may be required among breeding hibernation and summeringhabitats within 2 km These may be either aquatic streams or rivers or terrestrial field or forest usually not cropland except during periods of irrigation Hibernation Hibernate in deep or running water that will not freeze solid or become anoxic Are found hibernating on muddy substrate or under rocks sunken logs leaf litter or vegetation Oxygen levels at one known successful hibernation site were 7 ppm Tadpoles metamorphose in the year of
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