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Attention-deficithyper activity disorder ADHD is one of the most common developmental disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry with an estimated worldwide prevalence rate around 5 The genetic and environmental link between attention-deficithyperactivity disorder in childhood and the adult manifestation of the disorder is poorly understood because of a lack of longitudinal studies with crossinformant data And so this study set out to study the effects of genetic and environmental factors are explored in this study More specifically the researchers set themselves out to find out what were the effects of genetic and environmental risk factors on attention problems from childhood to early adulthood A few methods of measurement and rating were used to collect the relevant data and results for this longitudinal study First and foremost the study gathered a target sample of 1480 twin pairs 2960 individuals in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986 who were alive and residing in Sweden in 1994 The participants were evaluated using parent and self-ratings of the Attention Problems Scale at ages 8 to 9 13 to 14 16 to 17 and 19 to 20 years Parent ratings consisted of items from the AP Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist CBCL when the twins were aged 8 to 17 years and from the Adult Behavior Checklist ABCL at age 19 to 20 years Self-ratings consisted of items from the same AP Scale from the Youth Self-Report form YSR when the twins were aged 13 to 14 and 16 to 17 years and from the Adult Self-Report form ASR at age 19 to 20 years The CBCL YSR ABCL and ASR are standardized questionnaires for parents and children to rate the childrens frequency and intensity of behavioral and emotional problems exhibited in the past 6 months The AP Scale assesses problems related both to inattention and Hyperactivity-impulsivity eTable 1 httpwwwjamapsychcom This AP Scale was considered to be a measure of ADHD symptoms All items were scored on a
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