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Word Count: 1,667
Among the earliest civilizations were the diverse peoples living in the fertile valleys lying between the Tigris and Euphrates valley or Mesopotamia In Greek Mesopotamia means between the rivers In the south of this region an area now in Kuwait and northern Saudi Arabia a mysterious group of people began to live in cities They were speaking a language unrelated to any other human language we know The cities were ruled by some sort of monarch and they began to write These people were the Sumerians Around 3000 BC they began to form large city-states in southern Mesopotamia that controlled areas of several hundred square miles The names of these cities speak from a distant and foggy past Ur Lagash and Eridu These cities were constantly at war with one another and other peoples Water was a scarce and valuable resource The result over time of these wars was the growth of larger city-states The more powerful swallowed up the smaller city-states Eventually the Sumerians would have to battle another peoples the Akkadians who migrated up from the Arabian Peninsula The Akkadians were a Semitic people that is they spoke a Semitic language related to languages such as Hebrew and Arabic When the two peoples clashed the Sumerians gradually lost control over the city-states they had so brilliantly created and fell under the rule of the Akkadian kingdom This kingdom was based in Akkad the city that was later to become Babylon But that was not the end of the Sumerians The Akkadians abandoned much of their culture but absorbed vast amounts of Sumerian culture Such as their religion writing government structure literature and law But the Sumerians retained nominal control over many of their defeated city-states In 2125 the Sumerian city of Ur rose up against the Akkadians and gained control over the city-states of southern Mesopotamia The revival of Sumerian fortune was short-lived After a short century another wave of Semitic migrations signed
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