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Word Count: 519
Sculpture and painting of the Republican period initially reflected Etruscan influences As the empire expanded exposure to other cultures and the art of Greece reflected a more eclectic style The building of religious buildings and palaces was of importance but also they began to concentrate on the needs of the whole community of the ordinary people for which they developed new building forms new structural principles and new building materials The most important development in this period was that of concrete Concrete in contrast to stone was cheaper easier to transport and required a less skilled workforce Roman concrete consisted of powdered lime sand and various types of rubble these were mixed with water which caused the mixture to harden into a solid mass Initially concrete was used mainly for poured foundations but with advances it make indispensable to all types of structures and allowed more freedom and space for artistic experiment and expression The remains of the Sanctuary of Fortuna are an example of Republican Roman architecture The sanctuary is dedicated to the goddess of fate and chance was begun about 100 BCE Its design and size reflect the influence of the Greek Hellenistic architecture in the use of the long colonnade and the colossal scale of the great altar from Pergamon A Roman house of this period usually consisted of small rooms laid out on a straight generally symmetrical plan as in the House of Pansa in Pompeii 2nd Century BCE From the entrance a corridor led to the atrium a large space with a shallow pool for catching rainwater through an opening in the roof The structure and frontal plan of the house the centrally located atrium surrounded by small rooms- originated with the Etruscans The Pont du Gard near Nimes late 1St century BCE in southern France is an example of Roman engineering of this period This structure has a 900-foot span and rises 180 feet
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