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NATIONALISM AND NATIONAL MOVEMENTS 1848-1871 in 1848 liberal and nationalist sentiments in Europe erupted in a series of revolutions but the revolutions of 1848 after a brief moment of success ultimately failed liberals throughout Europe proved unable to establish and consolidate political power and conservatives in the end retained control of most states but national feeling grew more intense after 1848 by 1871 both Italy and Germany came into being as new nation-states the United States in the early 1860s was torn apart by a prolonged and bloody civil war which was in part fought over different concepts of nationhood Canada came into being in 1867 by a British act of parliament but the new state faced the problem of having to integrate French and English elements with widely different traditions Japan faced the problem of attempting to adopt Western industrialism with extraordinary speed without losing its own identity it was a new age-of revolutions limited wars changing ideologies and nation-building The Revolutions of 1848 Metternich had feared that revolution in one European state would inspire other uprisings he had special fears for the multi-national Austrian Empire and he attempted to suppress the national aspirations of all groups Metternichs fears were justified by events when a revolution did break out it usually sparked others 1848 was the most revolutionary year in the history of the West only England and Russia escaped serious uprisings in 1848 in 1848 a revolution in France once again gave the lead to Europe discontent mounted both among the lower middle class and the growing body of workers opposition to the regime arose particularly among republicans who sought participation for more people in the political life of the nation the pattern of revolution established in 1789 was repeated all the revolutionaries agreed on a republican form of government and a provisional government was established until elections could be held in April the February Revolution in France raised
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