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Word Count: 459
The 3D structure of DNA is called the double helix The 3D structure of DNA was determined by the use of x-ray diffraction which allowed scientist to look inside molecules and determine their 3d structure The structure was found in 1953 by James Watson Francis Crick Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin in Cambridge England A Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to James Watson Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins but many people thing Rosalind Franklin should have been nominated According to the rules only living people can be nominatedThe structure of DNA is double stranded with nucleotides on both sides that consist of Deoxyribose phosphate group and has nitrogen bases adenine a thymine cytosine and guanine DNA is held together by weak hydrogen bonds DNA is located in only the nucleus of a cell The structure of RNA is single stranded with alternating Ribose and phosphate and has nitrogen bases adenine uracil guanine and cytosine RNA is located in the nucleus and the cytoplasm RNA is also held together by hydrogen bonds Step 1 an enzyme called Helicase separates the two strands of DNA Step 2 Single stranded DNA binding proteins keep the strands from re-annealing Step 3 One DNA strand encodes the leading strand which forms from its 5 to its 3 end using DNA polymerase 3The lagging strand finds problems because it has to form from 5 to3 too it forms in pieces called Okazaki fragments Step 4 an RNA primase lays down an RNA primer then DNA polymerase 3 lays down new DNA The process repeats Step 6 Polymerase 1 replaces the RNA primase with DNA Step 7 the DNA ligase link Okazaki fragments DNA replication occurs during Interphase Complementary base pairing means that A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C Complementary base pairing is
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