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91 Cellular Respiration An OverviewFood molecules contain chemical energy that provides living things with the chemical building blocks they need to reproduce and grow The chemical energy in food is released when their chemical bonds are broken The food provides organisms with the energy they need The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius is a calorie Units of calories express the energy stored in food A kilocalorie or 100 calories is the Calorie used on food labels Energy stored in macromolecules differs because of the chemical structure of the molecule Cell break down food molecules gradually They capture little bits of energy at key steps Cells use the energy stored in the chemical bonds of foods like glucose to produce compounds such as ATP because of the gradual breaking down of the food molecule The process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen is cellular respiration Organisms can obtain energy from food in this processCellular Respiration6O2 C6H12O6 6CO2 6H2O EnergyOxygen Glucose Carbon dioxide Water EnergyCellular respiration requires oxygen 6O2 and a food molecule such as Glucose C6H12O6 and it gives off carbon dioxide CO2 water H2O and energy If cellular respiration took place in just one step all of the energy from glucose would be released at once The energy would be lost in the form of light and heat Explosive chemical energy in food molecules has to be released a little bit at a time It takes three stages to capture the energy from food in cellular respiration The first stage is Glycolysis then the Krebs cycle and the third stage is the electron transport chain Glycolysis is a chemical pathway in which the food molecules first enter During this stage only a small amount of energy is captures to produce ATP In the end of the glycolysis stage 90 percent
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