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Word Count: 573
The Parthenon is known as the masterpiece of Greek architecture The Parthenon is the most important and characteristic monument of the ancient Greek civilization and still remains its international symbol The name of the temple comes from the Greek word parthenos or virgin that is the goddess Athena It was dedicated to Athena the patron goddess of Athens The temple stands on a hill called the Acropolis which overlooks the city The Parthenon was the first building to be constructed on the Acropolis At that time there were no buildings in Athens because of the war between Athens and Persia Consequently they wanted to rebuild his city Many thought that the first building to be built must be a temple to Athena their patron goddess It was she who saw them through that war The temple was built between 447 and 438 BC Pericles initiated the construction of the monument the supervisor of the whole work was Phidias the famous Athenian sculptor while Ict inus and Callicrates were the architects of the building The Parthenon combines an element of the Doric and Ionic orders It is surrounded by forty-six Doric columns standing at thirty-four feet high The design used for these columns was a technique called fluting Each column has exactly 20 grooves The central part of the temple called the cella sheltered the famous cult statue of Athena made by Phidias The larger of the two interior rooms the naos housed the cult statue The Metopes statues on the Parthenon are about 120 meters high and the width is between 015 to 080 meters The metopes of the Parthenon all represented various instances of the struggle between the forces of order and justice on the one hand and criminal chaos on the other Shown on the west side are twelve metopes of the mythical battle against the Amazons Amazonomachy Shown on the south thirty-four metopes of the battle between the Lapiths and the Centaurs
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