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Zimbardo et al 1995 have defined prejudice as a learned attitude toward a target object involving negative affect dislike or fear and negative beliefs stereotypes that justify the attitudes Theories if the origins of prejudice fall into the major categories i prejudice stemming from personality variables and ii those which emphasize the interaction between personal and social variables In 1950 Adorno Frankel Brunswick Levinson and Sanford proposed the concept of the authoritarian personality a type of person who is prejudiced by virtue of specific personality traits which influence himher to be hostile towards ethnic racial and other minority or out groups They began by studying anti Semitism in Nazi Germany in the 1940s by using a number of scales were developed in the course of their research designed to measure i anti Semitism ii ethnocentrism and iii political economic conservatism Out of these emerged the F scale fascism scale which measures anti democratic tendencies indirectly by not mentoring specific minority groups or ideological beliefs but reveals anti Semitism is part of a general factor rather than an isolated prejudice so that the authoritarian personality is prejudiced in a very generalized way Typically the authoritarian personality is hostile to people of inferior status servile to those of lighter status disapproving and uncertainty unwilling to introspect feelings and an upholder of conventional values and ways of life This belief is convention and intolerance of ambiguity combine to make minorities them and the authoritarians membership group us they are by definition bad and we are by definition good Authoritarians have often experienced a harsh punitive disciplinarian upbringing with little affection and they often reveal considerable latent hostility towards their parents Such feelings unconsciously may be displaced onto minority groups and or groups projected onto these groups As
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