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We must build a new world a far better world -- one in which the eternal dignity of man is respected -- President Harry S Truman 1945 The Cold War was the most important political issue of the early postwar period It grew out of longstanding disagreements between the Soviet Union and the United States In 1918 American troops participated in the Allied intervention in Russia on behalf of anti-Bolshevik forces American diplomatic recognition of the Bolshevik regime did not come until 1933 Even then suspicions persisted During World War II however the two countries found themselves allied and thus ignored their differences to counter the Nazi threat At the wars end antagonisms surfaced again Stalin does not keep promises from Yaltas conference Expansionist vs Revisionist Perspectives Containment Kennans famous Mr X Article - Foreign Affairs 47 The Truman Doctrine 47 The Marshall Plan 47 The National Security Act of 47 Iron Curtain Dispute in Germany Divided into occupation zones after WWII Both nations begin to spread influence Establishment of NATO 49 Warsaw Pact 55 The Cold War developed as differences about the shape of the post war world created suspicion and distrust between the United States and the Soviet Union The first such conflict occurred over Poland Moscow demanded a government subject to Soviet influence Washington wanted a more independent representative government following the Western model The Yalta Conference of February 1945 had produced a wide-ranging agreement open to different interpretations Among its provisions was the promise of free and unfettered elections in Poland Yalta revealed cracks in the Grand Alliance Only the common objective of defeating Hitler had kept it together At his first meeting in the White House with Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov Truman revealed his intention to stand firm on Polish
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