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Word Count: 683
Quarks Humans have always wondered has the universe always existed Many Physicists studied to see if the universe had a beginning Scientists have tried to discover how the universe began famous scientists such as Albert Einstein Edwin Hubble and Stephen Hawking In 1929 Edwin Hubble discovered that the Universe is expanding After centurys Physics believe that the Big Bang is the beginning of the space and matter The big bang theory happened with an explosion about 137 billion years ago The big bang theory was a single point The beginning of the universe was extremely hot and dense Many particles formed in seconds after the big bang explosion Quarks began about 10 seconds after the big bang When the universe got cool enough protons and neutrons came together and formed hydrogen and heliumFor thousands of years scientists thought atoms were the smallest building blocks of matter In 1960 physicists discovered that protons and neutrons are made of still smaller particles in 1964 Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig suggested that Quarks might exist Quark was named by the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann from the book Finnegans Wake by James Joyce Three quarks for Muster Mark as there were three quarks in each proton and neutron Some of the Matter is made from energy but we need a lot of energy in the same place to make matterQuarks have very wired names they come in six different types known as flavors called down up strange charm top and bottom The Up Charm and top quarks have a charge of 23 and down strange and bottom quarks have a charge of -13A proton is made up of two up quarks and one down quark and neutron is made up of two downs and one up each of these quarks has antiquarks they have opposite charge to the quarks Each quark has a spin of 12 Physicists have discovered that matter is made up of twelve important
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