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Show your acquaintance with any three 3 of the following items 30 pointsTop down processing Language threshold hypothesisMetacognitive knowledge Fluent reading Answer Top down Processing It is a metaphorical model of reading It assumes that reading is primarily directed by readers goals and expectations Top-down model characterizes the reader as someone who has a set of expectations about text information and samples enough information from the text to confirm or reject these expectations Top-down model highlights the potential interaction of all processes with each other under the general control of a central monitor Language threshold hypothesis This hypothesis states that students must have a sufficient amount of L2 knowledge such as vocabulary grammar and discourse to make effective use of skills and strategies that are part of their L1 reading comprehension abilities This certain amount is referred to as a language ceiling by Clark 1979 or a threshold level of linguistic competence by Cummins 1979 The needed threshold varies among learners according to the purpose of reading and the text being read This hypothesis further describes the three types of bilinguals Proficient Partial and Limited and two distinct processes of bilingualism as additive bilingualism and subtractive bilingualismMetacognitive knowledgeThis concept refers to our knowledge of what we know It permits us to reflect on our planning goal setting processing of tasks and monitoring of progress It represents the basic ways to understand the learning strategies and our conscious use of reading strategies 2Comment briefly approx 200-250 words each on two 2 of the following statements demonstrating clearly that you understand the ideas andor issues involved in the quotation concerned 30 pointsReading whether in L1 or L2 is interactive
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