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Only recently the hippocampus posterior and anterior areas in primates brains were considered to have distinct roles The dorsal part is involved primarily in cognitive roles while the ventral portion is primarily involved in emotion and stress Fanselow and Dong 2009 The hippocampus structure is found in the medial temporal lobe within the limbic system of the brain Mapping by Ramon Cajal 1901 shows the dorsal hippocampus as small pyramidal neurons in CA1 and large pyramidal neurons in CA2 and CA3 The hippocampal formation is made up of mammillary bodies fornix cornu ammonis dentate gyrus and parahippocampal formation Afferent connection to the hippocampus comes from the septum through fornix also from the hypothalamus through fornix and from the amygdala to entorhinal cortex to gyrus of the hippocampus Efferent connection from the hippocampus comes out through fornix to mammillary bodies septal nuclei preoptic nucleus of hypothalamus and ventral striatumThe dorsal hippocampus performs mainly cognitive functions which includes mental processes like attention remembering and problem solving In terms of spatial navigation the dorsal hippocampus functions in the ability of the animal to discriminate between locations by using environmental cues andor stimulus and changing their behaviour accordingly Animal studies have shown that dorsal hippocampal damage can hinder cognitive functions White and Gaskin 2006 experiment shows that lesion of the dorsal hippocampus impairs adjacent arm discrimination learning The hippocampus is a major part of the brain of primates consisting of dorsal and ventral portions as part of the limbic system
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