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Throughout the entire history of mankind the technological advancements that civilisations have made have always been tied in with the development of energy sources The first human energy technology was fire along with human labour as the major energy source This has bee supplemented by animals for agriculture and transportation since at least the dawn of agriculture some 10000 years ago Wind and waterpower for milling grain have also been used nearly as long The development of the steam engine by George Stephenson in the late 1700s was the technological breakthrough that led to the industrial revolution For the first time in human history transportation could be provided without the use of domesticated animals Steam engines were used in steam locomotives steam tractors and steam ships BNebel and RWright 1995 Stationary steam engines were rapidly established in all the major industries The major fuel for steam engines was firewood By the end of the 1800s the demand for energy was ever increasing and firewood around industrial centres was becoming scarce This led to a switch to coal as the major source for fuel and energy As well as powering steam engines coal became widely used for heating cooking and industrial processes Air pollution during the Industrial revolution was far worse than anything seen today Apart from the smoke and fumes obscuring visibility they also caused major health problems to the inhabitants of the industrial areas reducing life expectancies predominantly with respiratory diseases The simultaneous development of the internal combustion engine well drilling technology and the capacity to refine crude oil into gasoline and other liquid fuels B Nebel et al 1995 in the late 1880s produced an alternative to steam power Air pollution was greatly reduced as coal-fired steam engines and gasoline and diesel engines and fuel oil furnaces replaced furnaces Due to the length of time it takes to change from one energy technology to another it was not until the late 1940s that
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