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The aftermath of the Second World War included economic difficulties in most developing countries Thomas and Evans 2011 464-465 Even worse in the early 1980s a debt crisis occurred and caused economic slowdown during which many developing countries were not able to pay their debts Simon 2008 86-87 In order to prevent the world economy from breakdown the IFIs International Financial Institutions the IMF and the World Bank promoted Structural Adjustment Programs SAPs in developing countries as a neoliberal remedy Developing countries obtained the money to solve their debt problems but were also imposed with neoliberal conditionality in terms of liberalization privatization and rationalization Manzo 2003 443 The reality shows that people in those countries did not benefit much The SAPs have been criticized that they focused too much on the macroeconomic sphere rather than the state development and those policies are imposed without considering much involving the specific context and situation Stiglitz 1998 5-7 Konadu-Aeyemang 2000 469 Hobbs 2004 201Since the early 1990s confronted with a large amount of critiques the Bank has shifted its strategy to an emphasis on state development Stiglitiz 1999 11-39 More attention has been given to the issue of poverty with its conception being given broader meaning from lacking basic needs to lacking the ability to choose to simplify the analysis this dissertation only uses income poverty which refers to less than 1 dollar a day as poverty Thomas and Evans 2001 461-462 Cling 2003 29 In addition a new poverty reduction strategy which is called the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers PRSPs has been advocated throughout poor countries since 1999 A big innovation lies in empowering the poor which means the poor countries can decide their poverty reduction and economy strategies Ruckert 2007 99 Country ownership is accompanied by a decentralized participatory process especially from the civil society which marks a significantly different idea from the SAPs Killick 2005 1 However since then debates have revolved around
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