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Seismic reflection reminder Seismic energy is reflected echoed from interfaces as well as transmitted Strength of reflection depends on Seismic speed contrast across interface Density contrast across interface Transmitted energy can be partially reflected by still-deeper interfaces Seismic Reflection Travel-time strength of echoes from layers below source measured Travel-times give relative depth Strength gives property contrast Repeated at close spacings along profile compare echo-sounder Result is seismic section which mimics layer distribution in subsurface Basic Seismic Reflection Major tool in oilgas exploration Hydrocarbons trapped in deformed beds for example folds domes Relative travel-time of reflections shows relative depths Structural interpretation possible up to several km below surface Seismic signal processing techniques focus on improving signal-to-noise ratioSNR and resolution of seismic data from pre-stack throught to post-stack A device used in surface seismic acquisition both onshore and on the seabed offshore that detects ground velocity produced by seismic waves and transforms the motion into electrical impulses Geophones detect motion in only one direction Conventional seismic surveys on
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