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Diabetes mellitus is a disorder caused by decreased production of insulin or by decreased ability to use insulin Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is necessary for cells to be able to use blood sugar The cause of diabetes mellitus is unknown but heredity and diet are believed to play a role in its development Diabetes results when the pancreas produces insufficient amounts of insulin to meet the bodys needs It can also result when the pancreas produces insulin but the cells are unable to efficiently use it insulin resistance Insulin is necessary for blood sugar glucose to go from the blood to the inside of the cells and unless the sugar gets into the cells the body cannot use it The excess sugar remains in the blood and is then removed by the kidneys Symptoms of excessive thirst frequent urination and hunger develop The metabolism of carbohydrates fats and proteins is altered Diabetes occurs in several forms The most common types are Type I or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM Type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM or Type I usually occurs in people before the age of 30 requires insulin injections to live Risk factors for IDDM include autoimmune disease viral infections and a family history of diabetes Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM or Type II usually occurs in severely overweight obese adults and rarely requires insulin treatment Treatment includes diet for diabetics and exercise Risk factors for Type II are obesity physiological or emotional stress pregnancy certain medications age over 40 and family history Gestational diabetes starts or is first recognized during pregnancy It usually becomes apparent during the 24th to 28th weeks of pregnancy In many cases the blood-glucose level returns to normal after delivery Risk factors for gestational diabetes are maternal age over 25 years family history of diabetes obesity birth weight
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