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Ideas have changed over years for treating and handling people who have mentally problems One ancient theory holds that abnormal behavior can be explained by the operation of supernatural and magical forces such as devil In socities that believe in this theory generally practise exorcism that is the removing of evil that resides in the individual through prayer and countermagic In some societies a technique called trephination was used to treat mentailly ill In this technique a sharp tool was used to make a hole in the skull in order to permit evils spirits to escape from the body Studies suggest that the operation was not often fatal In ancient Greece abnormal behavior was orginally interpreted as punishment for offences against the gods Therapy took place in a group of temples in which mental patients were believed to be healed by god Centuries later the idea that abnormal behavior was the punishment for offences against the gods was no longer accepted The Greek physician Hippocrates believed that the brain as the organ of consciousness thus he thought that deviant thinking and behavior were indictions of some kind of brain pathology Davison Neale 1998 Later serval Greek philosophers beginning with Socrates held a more psychological veiw to abnormal behavior In mid-nineteenth-century America the asylum was widely regarded as the symbol of an enlightened and progressive nation that no longer ignored or mistreated its insane citizens The justification for asylums appeared self-evident they benefited the community the family and the individual by offering effective psychological and medical treatment for acute cases and humane custodial care for chronic cases In providing for the mentally ill the state met its ethical and moral responsibilities and at the same time contributed to the general welfare by limiting if not eliminating the spread of disease and dependency Porter 1987 Horwitz 1977 Decades later the world had chagned and so had treatment of the mentailly
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