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Socialism aims at a social system based on public ownership of the means of production Von Mises 1969 Arising in the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Century socialism developed as a reaction to the hardships caused by capitalism and industrial revolution The government owns and operates all material resources in a social system Socialism first originated in France and England at about the same time but as it grew socialism took different courses throughout each country Wells 1912 Three major types of socialism existed they were Christian Democratic and Utopian Socialism Karl Marx who wrote The Communist Manifesto was considered one of the most popular socialists After him socialism was defined as either Marxist or non-Marxist McConnell Brue 1990 Socialism made steady advances mostly in its revolutionary forms around the globe after World War II For the first 30 years after World War II it seemed as if socialism was on the rise Even non-socialist nations adopted a number of social programs By the mid-1970s people realized the socialism had not lived up to its promise it had not worked well anywhere Heilbroner Thurow 1982 The primary reason why socialism failed was because of the prediction by Marx that the working class would sink continually deeper into poverty and misery was proved to be untrue Present-day socialist parties play an important role in Western European electoral politics Usually called Democratic Socialist parties they have favored a variable economic mix of Capitalism and state control In the third world socialist programs have stressed land reform and centralized economic planning often through a one-party but since the 1980s there has been a movement toward state control of the economy McConnell Brue 1990 From ancient times until well into the 19th century people were often considered subjects not citizens of their states and countries The people wanted to see a change which is why socialism was discovered Heilbroner Thurow 1982 Socialism focused its aim
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