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Yamina The Conditions of Freedmen and Freed Women During and After Reconstruction The period of rebuilding that followed the Civil War became known as Reconstruction A major concern during Reconstruction was the condition of the approximately 4 million freedmen freed slaves Most of them had no homes were desperately poor and could not read and write The word also refers to the process by which the Union restored relations with the Confederate states after their defeat Reconstruction lasted from 1865 to 1877 and was one of the most controversial periods in the nations history Scholars still debate its successes and failures To help the freed slaves and homeless whites Congress established the Bureau of Refugees Freedmen and Abandoned Lands The agency better known as the Freedmens Bureau operated from 1865 until 1872 It issued food and supplies to blacks set up more than 100 hospitals resettled more than 30000 people and founded over 4300 schools Some of the schools developed into outstanding black institutions such as Atlanta University now Clark Atlanta University Fisk University Hampton Institute and Howard University In spite of its achievements the Freedmens Bureau did not solve the serious economic problems of African Americans Most of them continued to live in poverty They also suffered from racist threats and violence and from laws restricting their civil rights All these problems cast a deep shadow over their new freedom The legal restrictions on black civil rights arose in 1865 and 1866 when many Southern state governments passed laws that became known as the black codes Black codes were state laws regulating the activities of blacks in the Southern United States after the American Civil War When slavery was abolished in 1865 Southerners used black codes to retain control over blacks The laws varied in strictness and detail from state to state They restricted the civil rights of
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