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During the time between 1877 and 1915 black Americans experiences many social and economic and political difficulties Many African Americans supported the program of Booker T Washington the most prominent black leader of the late 19th and early 20th century who counseled them to focus on modest economic goals and to accept temporary social discrimination Others led by the African-American intellectual WEB Du Bois wanted to challenge segregation through political action Washington and Du Bois both have valid strategies Washington believing that blacks could advance themselves faster through hard work than by demands for equal rights Du Bois declaring that African Americans must speak out constantly against discrimination During the 1870s the principle of segregation by race extended into every area of Southern life from railroads to restaurants hotels hospitals and schools Any area of life that was not segregated by law was segregated by custom and practice In 1873 the Supreme Court found that the Fourteenth Amendment citizenship rights not to be abridged conferred no new privileges or immunities to protect African Americans from state power In 1883 furthermore it ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not prevent individuals as opposed to states from practicing discrimination And in Plessy v Ferguson 1896 the Court found that separate but equal public accommodations for African Americans such as trains and restaurants did not violate their rights Cases such as there brought up new voices advocating civil equality and the strategies by which they are achieved One of these voices was that of Booker T Washington an educator and the most prominent black leader of his day He grew up as a slave in Franklin County Virginia born to a white slave-holding father and a slave mother In his famous Atlanta Compromise Address Booker T Washington used aphorism cast down your bucket as a metaphor for deserting racist ideas He stated that it is only in the South that a negro is given a mans
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