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Labor Relations encompasses all dealings transactions and activities affecting the determination and enforcement of the terms and conditions of employment The relations between employers and employees developed differently in various parts of the world In particular the goals and activities of European trade unions differ considerably from those of trade unions in the US In Europe customs and laws bearing on labor relations are often basically dissimilar even in neighboring countries European trade unions are primarily national organizations allied closely with political movements and parties By contrast the trade union movement in the US developed with a marked degree of uniformity The typical US trade union is primarily a local organization devoted to the advancement and protection of the economic interests of its members It usually has national and statewide affiliations but no loyalty to a particular political ideology In the early 19th century before the growth of the factory system wages and hours of work were usually arranged in direct dealings between employers and individual employees The prevailing legal and social opinions and the economic situation did not favor the development of workers organizations Because the difference in bargaining power between employers and employees caused many abuses the workers in various industries organized trade unions These trade unions demanded better terms of employment and enforced their demands by means of the strike Three types of regulation were formed which consist of protective legislation labor relations legislation and collective agreements between unions and employers These forms of regulation were developed to eliminate abuses and preserve industrial peace Protective legislation the earliest type of regulation was enacted by states and to a lesser extent by the federal government This legislation regulated the maximum hours of work and minimum wages of women and minors and hazardous practices affecting them as employees Some of these protections were extended later to adult male employees Under another type of protective legislation industrial employees become entitled to benefits
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