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The most important and influential discovery was the practice of surgery With this invention human life became more sophisticated humans lived longer and we obtained knowledge of ourselves sufficient enough to break the boundaries built by ignorance Lacking prescription drugs accurate tools computer technology and any background experience to build from our ancestors struggled to learn how to repair the human body They did a surprisingly competent job of treating the sick and injured Some of the medical technology developed in ancient times surpassed anything available in the modern world until the 18th century or 19th century In eras wherein religious views took precedence over medicine and logic surgical advancement was difficult The knowledge we have now was obtained from these peoples exploits The first known medical procedure is called trephination Trephination is the cutting of a hole through ones skull to relive excess pressure This dates back to as early as the Stone Age around 3000 BC Unearthed remains of successful brain operations as well as surgical instruments were found in France at one of Europes noted archeological digs The success rate was remarkable even around 7000 BC Skulls have been found from about 8000 BC with these telltale holes most of which are exact and show growth meaning that patients often lived for weeks even months afterwards Pre-historic evidence of brain surgery was not limited to Europe Early Incan civilization used brain surgery as an extensive practice as early as 2000 BC In Paracas Peru archeological evidence indicates that brain surgery was used frequently Here too an inordinate success rate was noted as patients were restored to health The treatment was used to treat mental illnesses they blamed on evil spirits epilepsy headaches and osteomylitis as well as head injuries Brain surgery was also used for both spiritual and magical reasons often the practice was limited to kings priests and the nobility Surgical tools in South America were made of both bronze and
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