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Since its discovery on 20 April 1963 the sculpture Augustus of Prima Porta fig 1 has been the subject of much scholarly discussion Found in a rural villa near Prima Porta fig 2 the statue has resulted in an almost unparalleled generation of literature1 The marble sculpture is probably a copy of a now-lost bronze statue which was made shortly after 22 BCthe exact location for this original has been a question of speculation the sanctuary of Athena at Pergamum is one of many suggestions2 Octavian became Augustus Caesar in 27 BC after an elaborate public show of resignation and humility3 Augustus was a religious title meaning revered which the Roman people bestowed upon Octavian in honor of his service The Res Gestae were his memoirs recording his victories in Gaul France and Spain military victories in the provinces which brought the Pax romana an era of relative peace and prosperity to the Roman people Augustus was lionized by the Roman peoplehe promoted conservative Republican values even though he failed to re-establish it He tried to restore faith in the Roman state by equating his role as pontifex maximus with religious and moral values Augustus used religion to reorganize state and to establish his own rule He assumed the title of Pontifex maximus head priest and revived old religious traditions like the Lupercalia festival to further associate the emperor with the state cult He also promoted the cult of emperor as divine by building a temple to the Divine Julius His views on morality extended to laws regarding adultery unchastity and bribery Under Augustus widowers were required to remarry within 3 years of losing a spouse and those fathering large families were rewarded with public recognition4 In Augustus of Prima Porta Augustus is portrayed as a general and wears a cuirass breastplate richly embellished with reliefs Around his waist is draped the paludamentum or officers cloak And while the statue is beautifully preserved the
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