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An operating system is the program that manages all the application programs in a computer system This also includes managing the input and output devices and assigning system resources Operating systems evolved as the solution to the problems that were evident in early computer systems and coincide with the changing computer systems Three cycles are clear in the evolution of computers the mainframe computers minicomputers and microcomputers and each of these stages influenced the development of operating systems Now advances in software and hardware technologies have resulted in an increased demand for more sophisticated and powerful operating systems with each new generation able to handle and perform more complex tasks The folowing report examines the development of operating systems and how the changing tehcnology shaped the evolution of operating systemsFirst Generation Computers 19451955 In the mid1940s enormous machines capable of performing numerical calculations were created The machine consisted of vacuum tubes and plugboards and programming was done purely in machine code Programming languages were unheard of during the early part of the period and each machine was specifically assembled to carry out a particular calculation These early computers had no need for an operating system and were operated directly from the operators console by a computer programmer who had immediate knowledge of the computers design By the early 1950s punched cards were introduced allowing programs to be written and read directly from the card instead of using plugboards Second Generation Computers 19551965In the mid1950s the transistor was introduced creating a more reliable computer Computers were used primarily for scientific and engineering calculations and were programmed mainly in FORTRAN and assembly language As computers became more reliable they also became more business orientated although they were still very large and expensive Because of the expenditure the productiveness of the system had to be magnified as to ensure cost effectiveness Job scheduling and the hiring of computer operators ensured that the computer was used effectively and crucial
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