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Word Count: 709
Throughout its evolution the human brain has acquired three components that progressively appeared and became superposed just like in an archeological site the oldest located underneath and to the back the next one resting on an intermediate position and the most recent situated on top and to the front They are respectively 1 - The archipallium or primitive reptilian brain comprising the structures of the brain stem - medulla pons cerebellum mesencephalon the oldest basal nuclei - the globus pallidus and the olfactory bulbs It corresponds to the reptile brain also called R-complex by the famous neuroscientist Paul MacLean 2 - The paleopallium or intermediate old mammalian brain comprising the structures of the limbic system It corresponds to the brain of the inferior mammals 3 - The neopallium also known as the superior or rational new mammalian brain comprises almost the whole of the hemispheres made up of a more recent type of cortex called neocortex and some subcortical neuronal groups It corresponds to the brain of the superior mammals thus including the primates and consequently the human species These three cerebral layers appeared one after the other during the development of the embryo and the fetus ontogenesis recapitulating chronologically the evolution of animal species phylogenesis from the lizards up to the homo sapiens According to Maclean they are three biological computers which although interconnected retained each one their peculiar types of intelligence subjectivity sense of time and space memory mobility and other less specific functions Actually we have three cerebral units in a single brain The primitive one is responsible for self preservation It is there that the mechanisms of aggression and repetitive behavior are developed It is there that occur the instinctive reactions of the so-called reflex arcs and the commands which allow some involuntary actions and the control of certain visceral functions cardiac pulmonary intestinal etc indispensable to the preservation
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