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From about 1825 until the outbreak of the civil war in 1861 the atmosphere in the nation was one of reform Boardman 122 There were five major reform movements present in 19th century America There was the UtopianismCommunitarian Movement which established an ideal society away from present politics Educational reforms were important in the fact of creating taxes to support the public school system higher education for adults and mandatory education and attendance The Temperance Movement preached of abstinence from alcohol and the Womans Rights Movement was to improve the life of women politically socially and economically It also included the strive for womens suffrage rights Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate This movement also included and was closely related to the Abolition Movement A great deal of the spirit to reform could be credited to the Enlightenment period of the 18th century which was still influential in America More recent though was the period of Romanticism which emphasized the goodness of nature and human kind To all this was added the democratic spirit of equality and the goal of Utilitarianism the achievement of the greatest happiness for the greatest number Boardman 123Secular communities arose in the mid 1800s The goal of these communities was to establish a new social order in society They were religious and secular colonies where the entire population of the community shared property and work They used idealistics as their model rather than radical doctrines The Harmony Society was originally established in 1805 in the county Butler Pennsylvania Later in 1814 the society moved to Indiana and then moved again to Economy Pennsylvania in 1825 Robert Owen founded the Society of New New Harmony Indiana in 1825 This colony was to be a self-sufficient community which was to exist without any currency Other similar non-religious societies were Nashoba Tennessee 1825 and the Zoar Community which was founded in 1817 and lasted until 1898 The majority of these
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