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Mediaeval understanding of science had mostly based Aristotle Aristotles ideas held for thousands of years until the scientific revolution begin breaking them off It is Newton helped the transformation of natural philosophy into modern science Newton established the science of mechanics and laid the groundwork for classical physics with law of motion he discovered These principles might seem obvious and simple to todays physicists but this was a new way of thinking in Newtons time Instead of seeing math as no more than a device for calculation that had no essential connection to reality Newton found a simple precise mathematical law from which the observed measurements could be worked out in detail He was able to rely on Keplers and Galileos work to develop the inverse law of gravity and the law of motion Keplers laws of planetary motion told us that the planets move in certain regular orbits related to their distance from the sun Newton took a step further providing how the solar system can keep the planets in their orbits He applied these to Keplers laws of orbital motion in 1687 Principia he formulated the law of universal gravitation a force--gravity affects all objects The strength of this force varies in according to the mass and distance between the objects The idea of an invisible force that control over matter without having direct physical contact certainly change the aspect of the universe in natural philosophy Structure of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic universe was dying A planet is now just a physical place a combination of physical particles obeying cold objective laws of motion It is no longer an alive entity striving to fulfill a purpose Although a very different conceptual scheme than that of the Middle Ages it is metaphysics nonetheless In this light we find Newton in spite of his professed positivism actively contributing to the metaphysical foundations of the science that bears his name and speculating again and again on the ultimate
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