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-The influence of James Burnham in Orwells 1984 Orwell has been deeply influenced by James Burnhams The Managerial Revolution In this work Burnham said that the nature of advanced economies in the modern age required a new class of technocratic managers to run all aspects of modern life from industry through the government Burnham expressed that the purpose of politics despite the ostensible rhetoric and stated party platforms was to give power to the ruling elite People could only retain their liberty by safeguarding the right of judicial opposition and maintaining institutions independent of the government In his work Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism Orwell explains that the new ruling class would consist on bureaucrats scientists technicians trade-union organizers publicity experts socialists teachers journalists and professional politicians In 1984 we see Big Brother as this Manager Winstons world is carefully controlled Big brother is watching you the party controls everything freedom does not exist Burnham also predicted that if Germany had won the war the world would be divided into three areas Those three areas were the United States dominating the worlds ocean-going countries Germany dominating the Eurasian heartland and Japan dominating the Far East In 1984 Orwell adopted Burnhams idea that the world was reorganizing itself into three rival totalitarian states Oceania Eurasia and Eastasia This geopolitical structure of the world is probably the most important influence Burnham had over Orwell In the following extract Orwell explains Burnhams point of view avoids the usual hypocritical attitude of condemning Russian policy while denying that it could be right in any circumstances to go to war In international politics as he realizes you must either be ready to practice appeasement indefinitely or at some point you must be ready to fight He also sees that appeasement is an unreal policy since a great nation conscious of its own strength never really carries it through All that happens is that sooner or later
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